In Amazonian thinking mammals do not have a closer relationship to humans than do birds, insects or even plants.  Rather, original human beings were transformed into plants, birds, or mammals.  All of these forms of life carry within them the mark of their human past.

Clara Santi.  Drawing of a wounded howler monkey shot by hunters. 

Andes and Amazon Field School Artist Work Shop,  2008

The purpose of the drawing is “llakichina” to evoke love and sorrow in the viewer.  The artist is not opposed to hunting monkeys however.   On the contrary, increased “llakichina” or empathy for the pathos of the animals increases the hunter’s luck by making the animals friendly. The artist lived of wild game for much of her life.

Rodent Robbers Good for Tropical Trees "As [agoutis] steal the same seed many, many times, it adds up to a long-distance movement of the seed that one animal by itself could have never done."

One seed was buried 36 times before an agouti dug it up and ate it. About 14 percent of the seeds survived until the following year.

Amazonian women take the name wangana for their protest